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Citations & Plagiarism

Use this guide to find help and information on citation styles and avoiding plagiarism.

APA 7th Edition


This guide will provide information on how to cite your sources in-text and in your reference list using APA style & formatting. Click the tabs for an example of each. 


Additional Resources:


No Date 1 or 2 Authors Citing Multiple Works
No Author 3+ Authors Citing a Source in a Source
Exact Quotes Up to 20 Authors Citing Personal Communication 
DOI 21+ Authors Organizational Authors with Acronyms


  • No Date: if there isn't a date, the reference starts with the author. 

Lucas, T. (n.d.). Mother nature revolts. U.S. News & World


The in-text citation will look like this:

According to Lucas,  ... (n.d.).

It is hypothesized that Coronavirus was the planet's way of making a point (Lucas, n.d.).



  • No Author: if there isn't an author, the reference starts with the title. 

Mother nature revolts. (2020, March 29). U.S. News & World


The in-text citation will look like this:

"Mother nature revolts" ... (2020).

It is hypothesized that Coronavirus was the planet's way of making a point ("Mother nature revolts", 2020).


  • Exact quotes: page numbers (or paragraph numbers) must be included for exact quotes: 

It was hypothesized that, "Coronavirus was the planet's way of making a point" (Lucas, 2017, p. 5.).

It was hypothesized that, "Coronavirus was the planet's way of making a point" (Lucas, 2017, para. 5.).


  • DOI = Digital Object Identifier.  If an item has a DOI, it must be included in the reference.  Not all articles and e-books will have a DOI.


  • 1 or 2 Authors: in-text citations for works with 1 or 2 authors will look like this:
    • The research ... (Gonzalez & Perez., 2020).
    • According to Perez, .... (2020).

If there are 2 authors, include both of them every time in the in-text citations.


  • 3+ Authors: in-text citation for works with 3+ authors will look like this
    • The research ... (Gonzalez et al., 2020).
    • According to Gonzalez et al. .... (2020).


  • Up to 20 Authors: names and initials for all 20 authors must be provided in the reference list. It will look like this:


The in-text citation will look like this: 

According to Smith et al. ... (2020). 

The research .... (Smith, et al., 2020).


  • 21+ Authors: for sources with more than 20 authors, the first 19 are included in the reference list followed by an ellipses and the final author. It looks like this:


The in-text citation will look like this: 

According to Smith et al. ... (2020). 

The research .... (Smith, et al., 2020).


  • Citing Multiple Workswhen referring to multiple works in-text, place the citations in alphabetical order, separating them with semicolons.

The in-text citation will look like this: 

(Edwards, 2012; Flygare et al., 2019; Steba, 2015).

  • Citing Multiple Works by the same author(s) in the same year: when multiple references have identical author (or authors) and publication year, include a lowercase letter after the year. The year–letter combination is used in both the in-text citation and the reference list entry. Use only the year with a letter in the in-text citation, even if the reference list entry contains a more specific date.

Smith, J. & Ortiz, P. (2019a, February). Judge Judy and her impact on society. Journal of Social Science, 15(2), 16-25.

Smith, J. & Ortiz, P. (2019b, March). Judge Judy impacts social justice. Journal of Social Science, 15(2), 16-25.

The in-text citation will look like this: 

Smith and Ortiz found ... (2019a).

...  (Smith & Ortiz, 2019b).


Arpan, L. M., & Raney, A. A. (2003). An experimental investigation of news source and the hostile media effect. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 80(2), 265-281.

The in-text citation will look like this: 

(Gunther, 1992, as cited in Arpan & Raney, 2003);

The in-text citation gives credit to the source used. This is the same one included in the reference list.


Because readers cannot retrieve the communication, it is not included in the reference list. The communication is cited in the text of the paper only.  

The in-text citation will look like this: 

S. Fernandez (personal communication, April 15, 2020) ...

... (S. Fernandez, personal communication, April 15, 2020). 


If an organization or government entity is commonly known by it's acronym, it can be used in-text but the full name should be spelled out in the reference list.  

The first in-text citation will look like this: 

The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS, 2020), described ... 


... (The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services [CMS], 2020).

In-text citations that follow can use the acronym:

According to CMS ... (2020).

... (CMS, 2020).

The reference list will always include the spelled out organization (and not the acronym):

The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2020).  ...

In-Text Citation Basics:

  • APA uses author-date citation system
  • Informs the reader where the information came from
  • Refers the reader to the source information
When to Use
How to Format
Direct Quotation Author-Date-Page/Para
Block Quote (quotes of 40+ words)
Indented 0.5” Author-Date-Page/Para



  • Use sparingly
  • Page numbers (or paragraph numbers) must be included for exact quotes
  • Only include relevant material
  • Block quotes = 40+ words, no quotation marks, indented



Neu (2015) stated that “healthcare is a right” (p. 6).

In 2017, Smith argued that “healthcare is a privilege” (para. 3) and therefore should not be free.

The notion that healthcare is a right has been debated by many authors (Neu, 2105, p. 6; Smith, 2017, para. 3).




APA citation basics

When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference.

On the other hand, if you are directly quoting or borrowing from another work, you should include the page number at the end of the parenthetical citation. Use the abbreviation “p.” (for one page) or “pp.” (for multiple pages) before listing the page number(s). Use an en dash for page ranges. For example, you might write (Jones, 1998, p. 199) or (Jones, 1998, pp. 199–201). This information is reiterated below.

Regardless of how they are referenced, all sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

In-text citation capitalization, quotes, and italics/underlining

  • Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D. Jones.
  • If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source: Permanence and Change. Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs: Writing New MediaThere Is Nothing Left to Lose.

(Note: in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized: Writing new media.)

  • When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word: Natural-Born Cyborgs.
  • Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: "Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock's Vertigo."
  • If the title of the work is italicized in your reference list, italicize it and use title case capitalization in the text: The Closing of the American MindThe Wizard of OzFriends.
  • If the title of the work is not italicized in your reference list, use double quotation marks and title case capitalization (even though the reference list uses sentence case): "Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds;" "The One Where Chandler Can't Cry."

Short quotations

If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference (preceded by "p." for a single page and “pp.” for a span of multiple pages, with the page numbers separated by an en dash).

You can introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.

According to Jones (1998), "students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).

Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?

If you do not include the author’s name in the text of the sentence, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.

She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.

Long quotations

Place direct quotations that are 40 words or longer in a free-standing block of typewritten lines and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout, but do not add an extra blank line before or after it. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.

Quotations from sources without pages

Direct quotations from sources that do not contain pages should not reference a page number. Instead, you may reference another logical identifying element: a paragraph, a chapter number, a section number, a table number, or something else. Older works (like religious texts) can also incorporate special location identifiers like verse numbers. In short: pick a substitute for page numbers that makes sense for your source.

Jones (1998) found a variety of causes for student dissatisfaction with prevailing citation practices (paras. 4–5).

A meta-analysis of available literature (Jones, 1998) revealed inconsistency across large-scale studies of student learning (Table 3).

Summary or paraphrase

If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference and may omit the page numbers. APA guidelines, however, do encourage including a page range for a summary or paraphrase when it will help the reader find the information in a longer work. 

According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.

APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

Citing Non-Standard Author Categories

A Work by Two Authors

Name both authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses.

Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports...

(Wegener & Petty, 1994)

A Work by Three or More Authors

List only the first author’s name followed by “et al.” in every citation, even the first, unless doing so would create ambiguity between different sources.

(Kernis et al., 1993)

Kernis et al. (1993) suggest...

In et should not be followed by a period. Only "al" should be followed by a period.

If you’re citing multiple works with similar groups of authors, and the shortened “et al” citation form of each source would be the same, you’ll need to avoid ambiguity by writing out more names. If you cited works with these authors:

Jones, Smith, Liu, Huang, and Kim (2020)

Jones, Smith, Ruiz, Wang, and Stanton (2020)

They would be cited in-text as follows to avoid ambiguity:

(Jones, Smith, Liu, et al., 2020)

(Jones, Smith, Ruiz, et al., 2020)

Since et al. is plural, it should always be a substitute for more than one name. In the case that et al. would stand in for just one author, write the author’s name instead.

Unknown Author

If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. APA style calls for capitalizing important words in titles when they are written in the text (but not when they are written in reference lists).

A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers ("Using Citations," 2001).

Note: In the rare case that "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name (Anonymous, 2001). In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author.

Organization as an Author

If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source, just as you would an individual person.

According to the American Psychological Association (2000),...

If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, you may include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. However, if you cite work from multiple organizations whose abbreviations are the same, do not use abbreviations (to avoid ambiguity).

First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD], 2000)

Second citation: (MADD, 2000)

Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses

When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list (viz., alphabetically), separated by a semi-colon.

(Berndt, 2002; Harlow, 1983)

If you cite multiple works by the same author in the same parenthetical citation, give the author’s name only once and follow with dates. No date citations go first, then years, then in-press citations.

(Smith, n.d., 1995, 2002, in press)

Authors with the Same Last Name

To prevent confusion, use first initials with the last names.

(E. Johnson, 2001; L. Johnson, 1998)

Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year

If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation.

Research by Berndt (1981a) revealed strong correlations. However, a parallel study (Berndt, 1981b) resulted in inconclusive findings.

Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords

When citing an Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword in-text, cite the appropriate author and year as usual.

(Funk & Kolln, 1992)

Personal Communication

For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list.

(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).

If using a footnote to reference personal communication, handle citations the same way.

1. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).

Traditional Knowledge of Indigenous Peoples

When citing information you learned from a conversation with an Indigenous person who was not your research participant, use a variation of the personal communication citation above. Include the person’s full name, nation or Indigenous group, location, and any other relevant details before the “personal communication, date” part of the citation.

(Caroline Jennings, Cherokee Nation, lives in Tulsa, Oklahoma, personal communication, October 2019) 

Citing Indirect Sources

Generally, writers should endeavor to read primary sources (original sources) and cite those rather than secondary sources (works that report on original sources). Sometimes, however, this is impossible. If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses. If you know the year of the original source, include it in the citation.

Johnson argued that...  (as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102).

(Johnson, 1985, as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102).

Electronic Sources

If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using the author-date style.

Kenneth (2000) explained...

Unknown Author and Unknown Date

If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n.d." (for "no date").

Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d.). 

Sources Without Page Numbers

When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. Use the heading or section name, an abbreviated heading or section name, a paragraph number (para. 1), or a combination of these.

According to Smith (1997), ... (Mind Over Matter section, para. 6).

Note: Never use the page numbers of webpages you print out; different computers print webpages with different pagination. Do not use Kindle location numbers; instead, use the page number (available in many Kindle books) or the method above. 

Other Sources

The APA Publication Manual describes how to cite many different kinds of authors and content creators. However, you may occasionally encounter a source or author category that the manual does not describe, making the best way to proceed unclear.

In these cases, it's typically acceptable to apply the general principles of APA citation to the new kind of source in a way that's consistent and sensible. A good way to do this is to simply use the standard APA directions for a type of source that resembles the source you want to cite. For example, a sensible way to cite a virtual reality program would be to mimic the APA's guidelines for computer software.

You may also want to investigate whether a third-party organization has provided directions for how to cite this kind of source.

All Text from the Purdue Online Writing Lab: 

Why Cite?

  • Avoid Plagiarism

    Indicate info. from various sources

  • Easily identify sources

  • Adds credibility to your writing

  • Expands breadth/depth of your writing

  • Acknowledge the sources that you have borrowed from



  • The reference list starts on a new page with the word References, centered and bold
  • Double-spaced

  • Your reference list must match your in-text citations and vice versa

  • Alphabetical list by author’s last name

  • Use a hanging indent for every line after the first

  • For titles of books, articles, & websites in reference lists, capitalize only:

    • the first word
    • the first word after a colon
    • proper nouns

Formatting a Reference List

Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.

Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page "References" in bold, centered at the top of the page (do NOT underline or use quotation marks for the title). All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.

Basic Rules for Most Sources

  • All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation.
  • All authors' names should be inverted (i.e., last names should be provided first).
  • Authors' first and middle names should be written as initials.
    • For example, the reference entry for a source written by Jane Marie Smith would begin with "Smith, J. M."
    • If a middle name isn't available, just initialize the author's first name: "Smith, J."
  • Give the last name and first/middle initials for all authors of a particular work up to and including 20 authors (this is a new rule, as APA 6 only required the first six authors). Separate each author’s initials from the next author in the list with a comma. Use an ampersand (&) before the last author’s name. If there are 21 or more authors, use an ellipsis (but no ampersand) after the 19th author, and then add the final author’s name.
  • Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.
  • For multiple articles by the same author, or authors listed in the same order, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.
  • When referring to the titles of books, chapters, articles, reports, webpages, or other sources, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of the title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns.
    • Note again that the titles of academic journals are subject to special rules. See section below.
  • Italicize titles of longer works (e.g., books, edited collections, names of newspapers, and so on).
  • Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as chapters in books or essays in edited collections.

Basic Rules for Articles in Academic Journals

  • Present journal titles in full.
  • Italicize journal titles.
  • Maintain any nonstandard punctuation and capitalization that is used by the journal in its title.
    • For example, you should use PhiloSOPHIA instead of Philosophia, or Past & Present instead of Past and Present.
  • Capitalize all major words in the titles of journals. Note that this differs from the rule for titling other common sources (like books, reports, webpages, and so on) described above.
    • This distinction is based on the type of source being cited. Academic journal titles have all major words capitalized, while other sources' titles do not.
  • Capitalize the first word of the titles and subtitles of journal articles, as well as the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and any proper nouns.
  • Do not italicize or underline the article title.
  • Do not enclose the article title in quotes. 
    • So, for example, if you need to cite an article titled "Deep Blue: The Mysteries of the Marianas Trench" that was published in the journal Oceanographic Study: A Peer-Reviewed Publication, you would write the article title as follows:
      • Deep blue: The mysteries of the Marianas Trench.
    • ...but you would write the journal title as follows:
      • Oceanographic Study: A Peer-Reviewed Publication

Single Author

Last name first, followed by author initials.

Brown, E. (2013). Comedy and the feminine middlebrow novel. Pickering & Chatto.

Two Authors

List by their last names and initials. Separate author names with a comma. Use the ampersand instead of "and."

Soto, C. J., & John, O. P. (2017). The next big five inventory (BFI-2): Developing and assessing a hierarchical model with 15 facets to enhance bandwidth, fidelity, and predictive power. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology113(1), 117-143.

Three to Twenty Authors

List by last names and initials; commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand. This is a departure from APA 6, which only required listing the first six authors before an ellipsis and the final author's name.

Nguyen, T., Carnevale, J. J., Scholer, A. A., Miele, D. B., & Fujita, K. (2019). Metamotivational knowledge of the role of high-level and low-level construal in goal-relevant task performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 117(5), 879-899.

More Than Twenty Authors

List by last names and initials; commas separate author names. After the first 19 authors’ names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author's name (do not place an ampersand before it). There should be no more than twenty names in the citation in total.

Pegion, K., Kirtman, B. P., Becker, E., Collins, D. C., LaJoie, E., Burgman, R., Bell, R., DelSole, R., Min, D., Zhu, Y., Li, W., Sinsky, E., Guan, H., Gottschalck, J., Metzger, E. J., Barton, N. P., Achuthavarier, D., Marshak, J., Koster, R., . . .  Kim, H. (2019). The subseasonal experiment (SubX): A multimodel subseasonal prediction experiment. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society100(10), 2043-2061.

Group Author

Group authors can include corporations, government agencies, organizations, etc; and a group may publish in coordination with individuals. Here, you simply treat the publishing organization the same way you'd treat the author's name and format the rest of the citation as normal. Be sure to give the full name of the group author in your reference list, although abbreviations may be used in your text.

Entries in reference works ( e.g. dictionaries, thesauruses, and encyclopedias) without credited authors are also considered works with group authors.

Merriam-Webster. (2008). Braggadocio. In Merriam-Webster’s Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary. Merriam-Webster.

When a work has multiple layers of group authorship (e.g. The Office of the Historian, which is a part of the Department of State, publishes something), list the most specific agency as the author and the parent agency as the publisher.

Bureau of International Organization Affairs. (2018). U.S. contributions to international organizations, 2017 [Annual report]. U.S. Department of State.

Unknown Author

When the work does not have an author move the title of the work to the beginning of the references and follow with the date of publication. Only use “Anonymous ” if the author is the work is signed “Anonymous.” This is a new addition to APA 7.

Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2003). Merriam-Webster.

NOTE: When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source's title instead of an author's name. Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate. For example, parenthetical citations of the source above would appear as follows: (Merriam-Webster's, 2003).

Two or More Works by the Same Author

Use the author's name for all entries and list the entries by the year (earliest comes first). List references with no dates before references with dates.

Urcuioli, P. J. (n.d.).

Urcuioli, P. J. (2011). 

Urcuioli, P. J.  (2015).

When an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation, as the first author of a group, list the one-author entries first.

Agnew, C. R. (Ed.). (2014). Social influences on romantic relationships: Beyond the dyad. Cambridge University Press.

Agnew, C. R., & South, S. C. (Eds.). (2014). Interpersonal relationships and health: Social and clinical psychological mechanisms. Oxford University Press.

References that have the same first author and different second and/or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the second author, or the last name of the third if the first and second authors are the same.

Arriaga, X. B., Capezza, N. M., Reed, J. T., Wesselman, E. D., & Williams, K. D. (2014). With partners like you, who needs strangers?: Ostracism involving a romantic partner. Personal Relationships, 21(4), 557-569.

Arriaga, X. B., Kumashiro, M., Finkel, E. J., VanderDrift, L. E., & Luchies, L. B. (2014). Filling the void: Bolstering attachment security in committed relationships. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5(4), 398-405.

Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year

If you are using more than one reference by the same author—or the same group of authors listed in the same order—published in the same year, first check to see if they have more specific dates (this recommendation is new to APA 7). Works with only a year should be listed before those with a more specific date. List specific dates chronologically.  If two works have the same publication date, organize them in the reference list alphabetically by the title of the article or chapter. If references with the same date are identified as parts of a series (e.g. Part 1 and Part 2), list them in order of their place in the series. Then assign letter suffixes to the year. Refer to these sources in your essay as they appear in your reference list, e.g.: "Berndt (2004a) makes similar claims..."

Berndt, T. J. (2004a).  Children’s friendships: Shifts over a half-century in perspectives on their development and their effects.  Merrill Palmer Quarterly, 50(3)206-223.

Berndt, T. J. (2004b).  Friendship and three A’s (aggression, adjustment, and attachment).  Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 88(1), 1-4.

Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords

Cite the publishing information about a book as usual, but cite Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword (whatever title is applicable) as the chapter of the book.

Lang, J. M. (2018). Introduction. In Dujardin, G., Lang, J. M., & Staunton, J. A. (Eds.), Teaching the literature survey course (pp. 1-8). West Virginia University Press.

All Text from the Purdue Online Writing Lab:

In-Text Citation Examples:

Narrative Parenthetical
According to Smith et al. ... (2020). The research shows .... (McConkey & Christiansen, 2020).
Pearsong et al. found ... (2020). Research findings .... (Pearsong, et al., 2020).
McConkey and Christiansen (2020) ... Science has proven ... (Andersen, 2020).


General Reference Form:

Author Last Name(s), First Initial, Middle Initial. (Date). Title of article. Title of Source, volume number(issue number), page

numbers. DOI or URL.  


Reference Examples: 

Articles with a DOI (Digital Object Identifier):

McConkey, S.M., & Christiansen, S.J. (2020). Language learning in Miami: A cross-linguistic model of diverse Spanish

dialects. Psychological Review, 128(8), 25-61.


Articles without a DOI:

Andersen, J. (2020, March 30). Miami and Coronavirus. New York Times. C1


Pearsong, S., Padron, M., & Ortiz, J. (2020, January 1). What the New Year has in store for the U.S. The New



Article with an article number or eLocator

Smith, T. C., Castillo, M. J., Jackson, G. L., Simpson, B. B., Lantry, R. S., O'Reilly, S. T., Rosenberg, F., Lee, L. H., Cox,

G., Harris, H. L., Kass, P., Gonzalez, W. L., Hughes, W., Carter, D., Campbell, C., Baker, A. B., Flores, T., Gray, W. E., 

Green, G., ... Nelson, T. P. (2020). Miami and Coronavirus. PLOS ONE, 14(1), Article


In-Text Citation Examples:

Narrative Parenthetical
According to Nadler and Voyles ... (2020). The research shows .... (Stone, 2020).
 Johnson states ... (2020). Research findings .... (Weinstock, et al., 2020).
In his book, Hacker finds ... (2017) ... ... (Weinstock et al., 2003).

Reference Examples:

TIP: In the 7th edition, publisher location is no longer required when citing books.


Authored book with a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) Example:

Nadler, J.T. & Voyles, E. C. (2020). Stereotypes: The incidence and impacts of bias.  ABC-CLIO.


Authored book without a DOI (print or ebook) Example:

Johnson, D.W. (2020). The customer revolution in healthcare: Delivering kinder, smarter, affordable care for all. McGraw-Hill.


Edited book without a DOI Example:

Hacker Hughes, J. (Ed). (2017). Military veteran psychological health and social care: Contemporary approaches. Routledge.


Chapter in an edited book with a DOI Example:

Stone, C. (2020). Stereotypes of veterans. In J. T. Nadler & Voyles, E. C. (Eds.), Stereotypes: The incidence and impacts of

bias. (pp. 213-225). ABC-CLIO. /fpsyg.2015.0004.


Chapter in an edited book without a DOI Example:

Weinstock, R., Leong, G. B., & Silva, J. A. (2003). Defining forensic psychiatry: Roles and responsibilities. In R. Rosner (Ed.),

Principles and practice of forensic psychiatry (2nd ed., pp. 7-13). CRC Press.


Website Examples:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, January 23). People at high risk of developing flu-related complications.

Martin Lillie, C. M. (2016, December 29). Be kind to yourself: How self-compassion can improve your resiliency. Mayo Clinic.

Boddy, J., Neumann, T., Jennings, S., Morron, V., Alderson, P., Rees, R., & Gibson, W. (n.d.). Ethics principles. The

Research Ethics Guidebook: A Resource for Social Scientists.


.... (Boddy, et al., n.d.).

... (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018).

Body et al. ...  (n.d.) ...

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, ... (2018).

Tweet Example:

Obama, M. [@MichelleObama] (2020, April 18). Thank you to all the essential workers who are getting up every day and

risking their lives on our behalf. @LauraWBush and I were honored to show our support for their heroic efforts during

tonight's @GlblCtzn’s One World: #TogetherAtHome Special. [video attached] Tweet. Twitter


.... (Obama, 2020).

Obama (2020) ...

Twitter Profile Example:

Bush, Laura. [@laurawbush]. (n.d.). Tweets. [Twitter profile] Twitter. Retrieved from April 18, 2020 from


.... (Bush, n.d.).

Bush (n.d.) ... 

Facebook Page Example:

Coronavirus (Covid-19) Information Center. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved April 18, 2020, from


.... (Coronavirus (Covid-19) Information Center, n.d.).

Coronavirus (Covid-19) Information Center (n.d.) ...

Facebook Post Example:

National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, November 28). Suicide affects all ages, genders, races, and ethnicities. Check out

these 5 Action Steps for Helping Someone in Emotional Pain [Infographic]. Facebook.


.... (National Institute of Mental Health, 2018).

The National Institute of Mental Health ...  (2018) ...

Instagram Video or Photo Example:
APA Style [@officialapastyle]. (2018, December 5). Welcome to the official Instagram for #APAStyle! We’re here to help you

with your APA Style questions [Instagram photograph]. Retrieved from


.... (APA Style, 2018).

APA Style ...  (2018) ...

Instagram Profile:
Star Wars [@starwars]. (n.d.). Posts [Instagram profile]. Retrieved December 10, 2018, from


.... (Star Wars, n.d.).

Star Wars ...  (n.d.) ...

Instagram Highlight:
APA Style [@officialapastyle]. (n.d.). FAQs [Instagram highlight]. Retrieved December 10, 2018, from


.... (APA Style, n.d.).

APA Style ...  (n.d.) ...

Blog Post Example:

APA Style. (2020, March 19). What’s new in the seventh edition Publication Manual. APA Style.


.... (APA Style, 2020).

The APA Style (2020) ...

Mobile App Examples:

Actual App:
Epocrates. (2019). Epocrates medical references (Version 18.12) [Mobile app]. App Store. 

Entry in the App:

Epocrates. (2019). Interaction check: Aspirin + sertraline. In Epocrates medical references (version 18.12) [Mobile app]. App



.... (Epocrates, 2019).

Epocrates ... (2019). 


All Text Below is from the Purdue Online Writing Lab: 

Myers, M., Paiz, J., Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M.,…Keck, R. (2019, December 20). General format. Purdue Online Writing Lab.

Webpage or Piece of Online Content

If the page names an individual author, cite their name first:

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL

Price, D. (2018, March 23). Laziness does not exist. Medium.

If the resource was written by a group or organization, use the name of the group/organization as the author. Additionally, if the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the citation.

Group name. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. (2019, November 21). Justice served: Case closed for over 40 dogfighting victims

If the page's author is not listed, start with the title instead. Additionally, include a retrieval date when the page's content is likely to change over time (like, for instance, if you're citing a wiki that is publicly edited).

Title of page. (Year, Month Date). Site name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL

Tuscan white bean pasta. (2018, February 25). Budgetbytes. Retrieved March 18, 2020, from

If the date of publication is not listed, use the abbreviation (n.d.). 

Author or Group name. (n.d.). Title of page. Site name (if applicable). URL

National Alliance on Mental Illness. (n.d.). Mental health conditions

Wikipedia Article

APA 7 treats Wikipedia articles as special instances of entries in reference works. Thus, there are a few differences between reference entries for pages on Wikipedia and those for generic webpages.

Title of article. (Year, Month Date). In Wikipedia. URL of archived version of page

Quantum mechanics. (2019, November 19). In Wikipedia

Wikipedia articles often update frequently. For this reason, the date refers to the date that the cited version of the page was published. Note also that the manual recommends linking to the archived version of the page, rather than the current version of the page on the site, since the latter can change over time. Access the archived version by clicking "View History," then clicking the date/timestamp of the version you'd like to cite.

Online Scholarly Journal Article: Citing DOIs

Please note: Because online materials can potentially change URLs, APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), when it is available, as opposed to the URL. DOIs are an attempt to provide stable, long-lasting links for online articles. They are unique to their documents and consist of a long alphanumeric code. Many—but not all—publishers will provide an article's DOI on the first page of the document.

Note also that some online bibliographies provide an article's DOI but may "hide" the code under a button which may read "Article" or may be an abbreviation of a vendor's name like "CrossRef" or "PubMed." This button will usually lead the user to the full article which will include the DOI. Find DOIs from print publications or ones that go to dead links with's "Resolve a DOI" function, available on the site's home page.

APA 7 also advises writers to include a DOI (if available), even when using the print source.

Article from an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned

Lastname, F. M., & Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Vol.(Issue), page numbers. DOI

Drollinger, T., Comer, L. B., & Warrington, P. T. (2006). Development and validation of the active empathetic listening scale. Psychology & Marketing, 23(2), 161-180.

Article from an Online Periodical with no DOI Assigned

If an online scholarly journal article has no DOI and is published on a website, include the URL. If an online scholarly article has no DOI and is published on a database, do not include a URL or any database information. The only exception is for databases that publish articles that are in limited circulation (like ERIC) or that are only available on that particular database (like UpToDate). You should also include the date that you accessed the article. 

Perreault, L. (2019). Obesity in adults: Role of physical activity and exercise. UpToDate. Retrieved January 12, 2020, from


APA 7th edition does not provide guidance on how to cite abstracts. However, if you only use information from the abstract but the full text of the article is also available, we advise you to add "[Abstract]" after the article or source name. If the full text is not available, you may use an abstract that is available through an abstracts database as a secondary source.

Online News Article

Note: The format for this type of source depends on whether your source comes from a site with an associated newspaper.

If the source does come from a site with an associated newspaper, leave the title of the article unformatted, but italicize the title of the newspaper.

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Title of Publication. URL

Richards, C. (2019, December 9). Best music of 2019: Lana Del Rey sings lullabies about the end of America. Washington Post

On the other hand, if the source doesn't come from a site with an associated newspaper, italicize the title of the article, but leave the name of the site unformatted.

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Name of publishing website. URL

Jones, J. (2020, May 10). Why flats dominate Spain's housing market. BBC.

Electronic or Kindle Books

It is not necessary to note that you have used an eBook or audiobook when the content is the same as a physical book. However, you should distinguish between the eBook or audiobook and the print version if the content is different or abridged, or if you would like to cite the narrator of an audiobook.

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of book. Publisher. URL

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of book [eBook edition]. Publisher. URL

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of book (N. Narrator, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Publisher. URL (if applicable)

Dissertation/Thesis from a Database

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis, Name of Institution Awarding Degree]. Database Name.

Duis, J. M. (2008). Acid/base chemistry and related organic chemistry conceptions of undergraduate organic chemistry students. (Publication No. 3348786) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Northern Colorado]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Entry in an Online Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia with a Group Author

Note: An online dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia may be continuously updated and therefore not include a publication date (like in the example below). If that’s the case, use “n.d.” for the date and include the retrieval date in the citation.

Institution or organization name. (Year). Title of entry. In Title of reference work. URL

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Braggadocio. In dictionary. Retrieved January 13, 2020, from

Entry in an Online Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia with an Individual Author

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of entry. In F. M. Lastname (ed.), Title of reference work (edition). Publisher. URL or DOI

Martin, M. (2018). Animals. In L. A. Schintler & C. L. McNeely (Eds), Encyclopedia of big data. SpringerLink.

Note: If the dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia does not include an edition, simply skip that step.

Data Sets

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group (Year). Title of dataset (Version No.) [Data set]. Publisher. DOI or URL

Grantmakers in the Arts. (2019). Arts funding trends, United States, 1994-present (ICPSR 37337) [Data set]. National Archive of Data on Arts & Culture.

Graphic Data (e.g. Interactive Maps, Infographics, and Other Graphic Representations of Data)

Give the name of the organization or individual followed by the date and the title. If there is no title, in brackets, you should provide a brief explanation of what type of data is there and in what form it appears. Include the URL and the retrieval date if there is no publication date.

HatchMed. (2017). 8 ways to improve patient satisfaction [Infographic].

Google. (n.d.). [Google Map of Purdue University]. Retrieved January 12, 2020, from,-86.9233886,17z

Qualitative Data and Online Interviews

If an interview is not retrievable in audio or print form, cite the interview only in the text (not in the reference list) and provide the month, day, and year in the text. If the interview transcript is published in an online periodical, like a magazine, cite the interview the same way you would cite the medium where it is published, as shown below:

Schulman, M. (2019, December 8). Peter Dinklage is still punk rock. The New Yorker.

If it is an audio file or transcript published in a database, credit the interviewee as the author and use the following model:

Paynter, W. (1970, September 17). Interview with Will Paynter [Interview]. Studs Terkel Radio Archive; The Chicago History Museum.

Online Lecture Notes and Presentation Slides

When citing online lecture notes, be sure to provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title (e.g. PowerPoint slides, Word document).

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of presentation [Lecture notes, PowerPoint slides, etc]. Publisher. URL

Smith, C. (2017, October 13). AI and machine learning demystified [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare.

Computer Software/Downloaded Software

Do not cite standard office software (e.g. Word, Excel) or programming languages. Provide references only for specialized software.

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (Year). Title of software (Version No.). Publisher. URL

Maplesoft. (2019). Maple companion (Version 2.1.0). Cybernet Systems Co.


E-mails are not included in the list of references, though you should parenthetically cite them in your main text:

(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).

Online Forum or Discussion Posting

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [username]. (Year, Month Date). Title of post [Online forum post]. Publisher. URL

Stine, R. L. [RL__Stine]. (2013, October 23). I’m R.L. Stine and it’s my job to terrify kids. Ask me anything! [Online forum post]. Reddit.


Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words[Tweet]. Site Name. URL

Note: If the tweet includes images, videos, or links to other sources, indicate that information in brackets after the content description. Also attempt to replicate emojis if possible.

National Geographic [@NatGeo]. (2020, January 12). Scientists knew African grays are clever, but now they’ve been documented assisting other members of their species—even strangers [Tweet; thumbnail link to article]. Twitter.

Twitter Profile

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL

MLA Style [@mlastyle]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Retrieved January 12, 2020, from

Facebook Post

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Type of post]. Site Name. URL

Note: If the Facebook post includes images, videos, or links to other sources, indicate that information in brackets after the content description. Also attempt to replicate emojis if possible.

U.S. Department of the Interior. (2020, January 10). Like frosting on a cake, snow coats and clings to the hoodoos at Bryce Canyon National Park in Utah [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook.

Facebook Page

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Site name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL

Little River Canyon National Preserve (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved January 12, 2020 from

Instagram Photo or Video

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Type of post]. Site Name. URL

BBC [@bbc]. (2020, January 12). Skywatchers have been treated to the first full moon of 2020-known as a “wolf moon”-at the same time as a [Photograph]. Instagram.

Blog Post 

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of post. Publisher. URL

Axelrod, A. (2019, August 11). A century later: The Treaty of Versailles and its rejection of racial equality. Code Switch, NPR

YouTube or other Streaming Video

Last Name, F. M. [Username]. (Year, Month Date). Title of video [Video]. Streaming Service. URL

Lushi, K. [Korab Lushi]. (2016, July 3). Albatross culture 1 [Video]. YouTube.

Note: The person or group who uploaded the video is considered the author. If the author’s name is the same as the username, you can omit the [Username].

Ted Talk

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date). Title of talk [Video]. TED. URL

Al-Mutawa, N. (2010, July). Superheroes inspired by Islam [Video]. TED.

Or (if on YouTube)

Username. (Year, Month Date). Title of talk [Video]. YouTube. URL

Tedx Talks. (2011, Nov. 15). TEDxHampshireCollege - Jay Smooth - How I learned to stop worrying and love discussing race [Video]. YouTube

Podcast Episode

Host, A. A. (Host). (Year, Month Date). Title of episode (No. if provided) [Audio podcast episode]. In Name of podcast. Publisher. URL

Prime, K. (Host). (2019, March 29). For whom the cowbell tolls [Audio podcast episode]. In Radiolab. WNYC Studios.

YouTube Example:

Cutts, S. (2017, November 24). Happiness [Video]. YouTube. ​


.... (Cutts, 2017).

Cutts (2017) ...


Ted Talk Example:

Kowalski, C. (2017, November).The critical role librarians play in the

opioid crisis


.... (Kowalski, 2017).

Kowalski (2017) ...


Film or Video Example:

Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One flew over the cuckoo’s nest [Film]. United Artists.


.... (Forman, 1975).

Forman (1975) ...


TV Example:

Wolf, D. (1999-present). Law & Order: Special Victims Unit [TV Series].  Wolf Entertainment Productions; NBC.


.... (Wolf, 1999-present).

Wolf (1999-present) ...


Podcast Example:

Poor, N., Woods, E. & Williams, A. (2016-present). Ear Hustle [Audio podcast]. PRX.


.... (Poor et al., 2016-present).

Poor et al. (2016-present) ...

Report Examples:

National Cancer Institute. (2018). Facing forward: Life after cancer treatment (NIH Publication No. 18-2424). U.S. Department

of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.

Blackwell, D. L., Lucas, J. W., & Clarke, T. C. (2014). Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview

Survey, 2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. (2017). Agency financial report: Fiscal year 2017.


.... (National Cancer Institute, 2018).

... (Blackwell, et al., 2014).

... (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 2017).

National Cancer Institute (2018) ...

Blackwell, et al. (2014) ...

According to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (2017), ...


Presentation Example:

O'Reilly, P., Edwards, C., & Hamil, S. K. (2020, April 1-3).  How to cite properly in APA. [Paper presentation]. Florida Library Association 100th Annual Conference, Orlando, FL, United States.

*Replace [Paper presentation] with [Conference presentation] or [Poster presentation] as needed. 


.... (O'Reilly, et al., 2020).

O'Reilly et al. (2020) ...


Dissertation Examples:


Hodges, L. (2018). Instructional design perceptions and practices of faculty [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Florida

International University.


Sanderson, K. R. (2012). Time orientation in organizations: Polychronicity and multitasking (Publication No. 3554209)

[Doctoral dissertation Florida International University]. Proquest Dissertations & Theses.


.... (Hodges, 2018).

Sanderson (2012) ...


Unpublished Manuscript Example:

Yen, J., Chen, Y., Rigotti, A., & Deckard C. (2016). Linking good customer services to increased sales: An observational study

[Unpublished manuscript]. College of Business, Florida International University.

Include the department and institution where the work was published if possible. 


....  (Yen et al., 2016).

Yen, et al. (2016) ...


Data Set Examples:

Published Data:

Pew Research Center (2018).  Core Trend Survey [Data set].

Unpublished Unnamed Raw Data Set:

Baer,  R. A. (2015). [Unpublished raw data on the correlations between the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and the

Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills]. University of Kentucky.


.... (Pew Research Center, 2018).

Baer (2015) ...

Infographic Example:

Florida Library Association. (2020, February). Federal funds in Florida [Infographic].


.... (Florida Library Association [FLA], 2020).

Florida Library Association [FLA] (2020) ...


Map Example:

Florida International University GIS Center. (2015). BIKE – Bicycle Knowledge Explorer (Palm Beach) [Map].


.... (Florida International University GIS Center, 2015).

Florida International University GIS Center (2015) ...


Photograph Example:

McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic.


.... (McCurry, 1985).

McCurry (1985) ...


PowerPoint or Lecture Notes Example:

Cana, E., & Vasilev, J. (2019, May 22). [Lecture notes on resource allocation]. Department of Management Control and

Information Systems, University of Chile.

Mack, R., & Spake, G. (2018). Citing open source images and formatting references for presentations [PowerPoint slides].


.... (Mack & Spake, 2018).

Cana and Vasiley (2019) ...


Museum Example:

Wood, G. (1930). American gothic [Painting]. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.


.... (Wood, 1930).

Wood (1930) ...