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Africa & African Diaspora Studies Research Guide

Citation & Formatting by Style

MLA style is generally used by subject areas in the humanities.  Overall, it is simpler than other styles, featuring parenthetical citations and an alphabetized list of references at the end.  Entries for the list of works cited must be aphabetical and double-spaced, with the indent of the subsequent line one-half inch from the left margin.

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the style manual of choice for writers, editors, students, educators, and professionals in psychology, sociology, business, economics, nursing, social work, and justice administration, and other disciplines. In addition to providing clear guidance on grammar, the mechanics of writing, and APA style, the Publication Manual offers an authoritative and easy-to-use reference and citation system and comprehensive coverage of the treatment of numbers, metrication, statistical and mathematical data, tables, and figures for use in writing, reports, or presentations.

Chicago style is perhaps one of the more complex citation styles because it is really two systems under one name.  The Notes/Bibliography system is used mainly in the humanities.  The Author/Date style is typically used by those in the physical, natural, and social sciences.  The main difference between the two systems the preference for notes (Notes/Bibliography) or parenthetical in-text citations (Author/Date) within the document.  For more specific information on the Chicago style, please refer to chapters 14-15 of the Chicago Manual of Style.

Turabian is Chicago style for students and researchers, based on the Chicago Manual of Style by Kate Turabian.  The two styles are so similar, they are often grouped together.  The main difference between the two styles, besides minor punctuation rules, is that Turabian has been adapted to suit the needs of students whereas Chicago focuses more on publication.  For more specific information on Turabian style, please refer to the Citations & Plagiarism guide.

Scientific style and format : the CSE manual for authors, editors, and publishers presents three systems for referring to references (also known as citations) within the text of a journal article, book, or other scientific publication: 1) citation–sequence; 2) name–year; and 3) citation–name. These abbreviated references are called in-text references. They refer to a list of references at the end of the document.

The system of in-text references that you use will determine the order of references at the end of your document. These end references have essentially the same format in all three systems, except for the placement of the date of publication in the name–year system.

Though Scientific Style and Format now uses citation–sequence for its own references, each system is widely used in scientific publishing. Consult your publisher to determine which system you will need to follow.

RefWorks can manage your citations & references!

For the Researcher

The new RefWorks increases researcher productivity by simplifying the research experience. It is the one tool that researchers need to gather, organize, read, and cite their research materials.  It also makes it easy to collaborate with others on joint projects.

  • Collect and Import – With RefWorks it is simple and fast, to collect or import materials. Auto completion of reference data and retrieval of full text saves time and ensures accurate citations.
  • Manage Research – RefWorks enables users to organize, read, and annotate everything they collect and import.
  • Share and Collaborate – RefWorks smoothly allows users to share collections and collaborate with others.
  • Write and Cite – RefWorks is accurate, delivering thousands of customizable citation styles to use within authoring tools.
  • Streamlined Workflows - RefWorks makes research management and paper-writing easy with streamlined workflows that increase productivity.  

Why Cite? Citation Help

Using proper citation style allows us to give credit to the creators of the material we are using.  It is how we use information responsibly and respectfully.  By using citations, our claims and theories become more authorized and credible because we are providing supporting evidence from other sources.  Citations also allow us to be honest about our contributions and avoid plagiarism.  This guide was created to help you find the information you need to be able to create citations properly, avoid plagiarism, and introduce you to citation generators. 

While finding the right information is important, it is also just as important to use that information ethically

Concerns, procedures and sanctions about academic honesty are articulated in the FIU Code of Academic Integrity which was adopted by the Student Government Association on November 28, 2001. The following Pledge from the FIU Student Handbook specifically discourages plagiarism:

As a student of this university:

  1. I will be honest in my academic endeavors.
  2. I will not represent someone else's work as my own.
  3. I will not cheat, or will I aid in another's cheating.

 

 Use of the World Wide Web as a research resource has exacerbated the problem of plagiarism in colleges and universities worldwide.

Here are links to online citation generators.  For the purposes of creating a quick, one-time citation in the correct style, these websites will generate citations once the information has been provided.

 

Looking for more in-depth citation help?  Visit our citation guides for help and info on specific styles and document types and citation generator comparisons.