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Research Data Management

Learn how to manage your research data throughout the data lifecycle: including data management plans, data organization, file formats, as well as data sharing/re-use.

Data Citation Principles

Data Citation

Data citation is required to acknowledge the original author/producer and to help other researchers find the resource. There is no one standard for data citation. While citation standards are still evolving you have a few options:

  1. Use the format of a style manual, such as APA
  2. Use the data Archive or source's preferred format.

As a general rule of thumb be sure to include the following:

  • Author
  • Title
  • Edition or Versions
  • Data
  • Publisher
  • Electronic Retrieval Location


Here are a few data citation examples:

APA ( from Purdue OWL)

Data Sets

Point readers to raw data by providing a Web address (use "Retrieved from") or a general place that houses data sets on the site (use "Available from").

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2008). Indiana income limits [Data file]. Retrieved from

Graphic Data (e.g. Interactive Maps and Other Graphic Representations of Data)

Give the name of the researching organization followed by the date. In brackets, provide a brief explanation of what type of data is there and in what form it appears. Finally, provide the project name and retrieval information.

Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment. (2007). [Graph illustration the SORCE Spectral Plot May 8, 2008]. Solar Spectral Data Access from the SIM, SOLSTICE, and XPS Instruments. Retrieved from spectra.ion

Qualitative Data and Online Interviews

If an interview is not retrievable in audio or print form, cite the interview only in the text (not in the reference list) and provide the month, day, and year in the text. If an audio file or transcript is available online, use the following model, specifying the medium in brackets (e.g. [Interview transcript, Interview audio file]):

Butler, C. (Interviewer) & Stevenson, R. (Interviewee). (1999). Oral History 2 [Interview transcript]. Retrieved from Johnson Space Center Oral Histories Project Web site: http://



Creator (PublicationYear). Title. Publisher. Identifier

Creator (PublicationYear). Title. Version. Publisher. ResourceType. Identifier


ICPSR Data Citations

Deschenes, Elizabeth Piper, Susan Turner, and Joan Petersilia. Intensive Community Supervision in Minnesota, 1990-1992: A Dual Experiment in Prison Diversion and Enhanced Supervised Release [Computer file]. ICPSR06849-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2000. doi:10.3886/ICPSR06849

Esther Duflo; Rohini Pande, 2006, "Dams, Poverty, Public Goods and Malaria Incidence in India", UNF:5:obNHHq1gtV400a4T+Xrp9g== Murray Research Archive [Distributor] V2 [Version]

Sidlauskas B (2007) Data from: Testing for unequal rates of morphological diversification in the absence of a detailed phylogeny: a case study From characiform fishes. Dryad Digital Repository. doi:10.5061/dryad.20



building a culture of data citation

As the below diagram from the Australian National Data Service shows, your actions can make a difference in building a culture of data citation - whether you're a data producer, author, or journal editor.