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Managing the Research Process

This guide seeks to reinforce metaliteracy skills and help researchers to "utilize divergent (e.g., brainstorming) and convergent (e.g., selecting the best source) thinking when searching" and “give credit" to the original ideas of others through proper c

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APA Citations & Academic Integrity: Instruct

APA by Format Type: Choose Below

APA (American Psychological Association) style is generally used in the social sciences.  As the publishing standard, APA style also provides guidelines for paper formatting.

Books and monographs, including reference books, dictionaries and other items, are generally cited using the following format:


Author, A. A. (year).  Title of work.  Location: Publisher.

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Retrieved from http://www.websiteadress

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. doi: xx.xxxxxxxx

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (year). Title of work.  Location: Publisher.


Please note that APA uses sentence capitalization rules for the title of the item, meaning that generally only the first word, proper nouns, and the first word following a colon are capitalized.  For more specific examples, please refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Journals are items that are published on a regular basis and are also referred to as 'periodicals'.  There is a general basic format for citing journal articles in APA style.  Please remember that the reference list must be double-spaced with a hanging indent.  Examples are taken from Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association unless otherwise noted.



U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance. (2015, May). An environmental management system review of the National Park Service: Based on the code of environmental management principles. Retrieved from


In-text citation

(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000)

For items retrieved online, please include the website.  The examples below are general in nature.  Please always double-check your citations using the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

The FIU Libraries currently has Kindles available for check, with a variety of other e-readers to be available in the future.  In order to cite e-books on the devices, follow the examples below, taken from the APA Style Blog.  

In both cases, the edition of the e-book is related.  The DOI should be included, if available.  For citing particular passages, either paraphrase with correct in-text citations or refer to Section 6.05 of the APA Manual and follow the rules for quotations from online sources.

One of the author’s main points is that “people don’t rise from nothing”  (Gladwell, 2008, Chapter 1, Section 2, para. 5).

RefWorks: your research buddy & total reference management tool

For the Researcher

RefWorks increases researcher productivity by simplifying the research experience. It is the one tool that researchers need to gather, organize, read, and cite their research materials.  It also makes it easy to collaborate with others on joint projects.

  • Collect and Import – With RefWorks it is simple and fast, to collect or import materials. Auto completion of reference data and retrieval of full text saves time and ensures accurate citations.
  • Manage Research – RefWorks enables users to organize, read, and annotate everything they collect and import.
  • Share and Collaborate – RefWorks smoothly allows users to share collections and collaborate with others.
  • Write and Cite – RefWorks is accurate, delivering thousands of customizable citation styles to use within authoring tools.
  • Streamlined Workflows - RefWorks makes research management and paper-writing easy with streamlined workflows that increase productivity.