Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

United States History from 1877

Guide developed for Dr. Verna's Intro to U.S. History Since 1877 class. Contains resources for the study of U.S. History from Reconstruction (1865) until the 1970s.

intro to citation: race, gender, science

It is crucial to properly credit other author's ideas when conducting research. This page will serve as a brief guide to the Chicago Style of citation, widely used in historical research. If needed, an in-depth guide to citations entitled Citations & Plagiarism is also available for your reference.

 

Chicago Style by Media Type

The Chicago Manual of Style presents two basic documentation systems: (1) notes and bibliography and (2) author-date. Choosing between the two often depends on subject matter and the nature of sources cited, as each system is favored by different groups of scholars.

The notes and bibliography style is preferred by many in the humanities, including those in literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in notes and, often, a bibliography. 

The author-date system has long been used by those in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and date of publication. The short citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided. From Chicago Manual of Style: Quick Citation Guide

EXAMPLES

One author:
Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.

 

Two + authors:
Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf, 2007.

For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the bibliography; in the note, list only the first author, followed by et al. (“and others”):


Translator:
Lattimore, Richmond, trans. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.

Book chapter:

Kelly, John D. “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War.” In Anthropology

and Global Counterinsurgency, edited by John D. Kelly, Beatrice Jauregui, Sean T. Mitchell, and Jeremy

Walton, 67–83. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.

Please note that the following examples are taken from the Chicago Manual of Style in the Documentation 1 format for the notes and bibliography.  Please refer directly to the Manual if you have more questions.

 

14.175 Journals

 

Menjivar, Cecilia.  "Linimal Legality: Salvadoran and Guatemalan Immigrants' Lives in the United States."  American Journal of Sociology 111, no. 4 (2006): 999-1037.  doi:10.1086/499509.

 

Loften, Peter.  "Reverberations between Wordplay and Swordplay in Hamlet."  Aeolian Studies 2 (1989):12-29.

 

Abrams, Marshall.  "How Do Natural Selection and Random Drift Interact?"  Philosophy of Science 74 (December 2007): 666-79.  doi:10.1086/525612.

 

The bibliography should be arranged alphabetically and should contain every item cited in the document.  Feel free to Ask A Librarian for more help!

The Chicago Manual of Style requires that the database name be included in the reference list.  Below are some general examples taken from the manual.

 

14.271, 14.272  Databases

 

Howard, David H.  "Hospital Quality and Selective Contracting: Evidence from Kidny Transplantation."  Forum for Health Economics and Policy 11, no. 2 (2008).  PubMed Central (PMC2600561).

 

GenBack (for RP11-322N14 BAC [accession number AC017046]; accessed October 6, 2009).  http;//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Genbank/.

 

NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (object name IRAS f00400+4059; accessed October 6, 2009).  http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/.

 

Please refer to the manual, the links included in this guide or Ask A Librarian if you have any questions.

For books that come in many different formats, the Chicago Manual requires that you cite the format you consulted.  For more detailed information, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style Online.  The following example is taken from the Chicago Manual of Style as a guide for citing e-books on e-reader devices.

 

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics, 2007. Kindle edition.

RefWorks Login, Features & Tutorials

The new RefWorks increases researcher productivity by simplifying the research experience. It is the one tool that researchers need to gather, organize, read, and cite their research materials.  It also makes it easy to collaborate with others on joint projects.

  • Collect and Import – With RefWorks it is simple and fast, to collect or import materials. Auto completion of reference data and retrieval of full text saves time and ensures accurate citations.
  • Manage Research – RefWorks enables users to organize, read, and annotate everything they collect and import.
  • Share and Collaborate – RefWorks smoothly allows users to share collections and collaborate with others.
  • Write and Cite – RefWorks is accurate, delivering thousands of customizable citation styles to use within authoring tools.
  • Streamlined Workflows - RefWorks makes research management and paper-writing easy with streamlined workflows that increase productivity.  

Save with a single click. 

  • save an unlimited number of references, fulltext, and other research materials
  • import from online databases, catalogs, reference management tools, and your computer 
  • quickly save references and fulltext from any web page
  • automatically complete citation data using comprehensive ProQuest databases

​Refworks is robust - Organize, Retrieve, Read, and Annotate.

  • organize your data with collections and tags
  • quickly search and find your references and fulltext document
  • read and annotate fulltext documents with highlights and comments from anywhere
  • sync your data to Dropbox and have a local copy of your fulltext

With RefWorks you can smoothly and seamlessly share collections and work with others simultaneously. 

  • collaborate on projects with share full access to resources
  • allow collaborators granular levels of access
  • take advantage of institutional and public collections
  • interactively read, comment, and annotate fulltext with your collaborators
  • Google Docs integration makes for easy collaboration

Write and Cite with RefWorks

  • generate bibliographies and citations in a snap for any authoring tool
  • use RefWorks integrations to insert in-text citation in Word or Google Docs
  • leverage thousands of pre-built citation styles and request new styles
  • customize citation styles or even create your own from scratch