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MAN6636 / Global Megatrends, Geopolitics, & Political Economy


This guide will provide information on how to cite your sources in-text and in your reference list using APA style & formatting. Click the tabs for an example of each. 


Additional Resources:


No Date 1 or 2 Authors Citing Multiple Works
No Author 3+ Authors Citing a Source in a Source
Exact Quotes Up to 20 Authors Citing Personal Communication 
DOI 21+ Authors Organizational Authors with Acronyms


  • No Date: if there isn't a date, the reference starts with the author. 

Lucas, T. (n.d.). Mother nature revolts. U.S. News & World


The in-text citation will look like this:

According to Lucas,  ... (n.d.).

It is hypothesized that Coronavirus was the planet's way of making a point (Lucas, n.d.).



  • No Author: if there isn't an author, the reference starts with the title. 

Mother nature revolts. (2020, March 29). U.S. News & World


The in-text citation will look like this:

"Mother nature revolts" ... (2020).

It is hypothesized that Coronavirus was the planet's way of making a point ("Mother nature revolts", 2020).


  • Exact quotes: page numbers (or paragraph numbers) must be included for exact quotes: 

It was hypothesized that, "Coronavirus was the planet's way of making a point" (Lucas, 2017, p. 5.).

It was hypothesized that, "Coronavirus was the planet's way of making a point" (Lucas, 2017, para. 5.).


  • DOI = Digital Object Identifier.  If an item has a DOI, it must be included in the reference.  Not all articles and e-books will have a DOI.


  • 1 or 2 Authors: in-text citations for works with 1 or 2 authors will look like this:
    • The research ... (Gonzalez & Perez., 2020).
    • According to Perez, .... (2020).

If there are 2 authors, include both of them every time in the in-text citations.


  • 3+ Authors: in-text citation for works with 3+ authors will look like this
    • The research ... (Gonzalez et al., 2020).
    • According to Gonzalez et al. .... (2020).


  • Up to 20 Authors: names and initials for all 20 authors must be provided in the reference list. It will look like this:


The in-text citation will look like this: 

According to Smith et al. ... (2020). 

The research .... (Smith, et al., 2020).


  • 21+ Authors: for sources with more than 20 authors, the first 19 are included in the reference list followed by an ellipses and the final author. It looks like this:


The in-text citation will look like this: 

According to Smith et al. ... (2020). 

The research .... (Smith, et al., 2020).


  • Citing Multiple Workswhen referring to multiple works in-text, place the citations in alphabetical order, separating them with semicolons.

The in-text citation will look like this: 

(Edwards, 2012; Flygare et al., 2019; Steba, 2015).

  • Citing Multiple Works by the same author(s) in the same year: when multiple references have identical author (or authors) and publication year, include a lowercase letter after the year. The year–letter combination is used in both the in-text citation and the reference list entry. Use only the year with a letter in the in-text citation, even if the reference list entry contains a more specific date.

Smith, J. & Ortiz, P. (2019a, February). Judge Judy and her impact on society. Journal of Social Science, 15(2), 16-25.

Smith, J. & Ortiz, P. (2019b, March). Judge Judy impacts social justice. Journal of Social Science, 15(2), 16-25.

The in-text citation will look like this: 

Smith and Ortiz found ... (2019a).

...  (Smith & Ortiz, 2019b).


Arpan, L. M., & Raney, A. A. (2003). An experimental investigation of news source and the hostile media effect. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 80(2), 265-281.

The in-text citation will look like this: 

(Gunther, 1992, as cited in Arpan & Raney, 2003);

The in-text citation gives credit to the source used. This is the same one included in the reference list.


Because readers cannot retrieve the communication, it is not included in the reference list. The communication is cited in the text of the paper only.  

The in-text citation will look like this: 

S. Fernandez (personal communication, April 15, 2020) ...

... (S. Fernandez, personal communication, April 15, 2020). 


If an organization or government entity is commonly known by it's acronym, it can be used in-text but the full name should be spelled out in the reference list.  

The first in-text citation will look like this: 

The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS, 2020), described ... 


... (The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services [CMS], 2020).

In-text citations that follow can use the acronym:

According to CMS ... (2020).

... (CMS, 2020).

The reference list will always include the spelled out organization (and not the acronym):

The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2020).  ...




If you use Artificial Intelligence generated text such as ChatGPT, it needs to be cited.


However, before you get help from AI, check your syllabus and/or ask your professor whether it is allowed! 




Example to Model:



When prompted “Why is toxic positivity a problem in the workplace,” the ChatGPT-generated text indicated that “toxic positivity can be harmful as it can lead to a dismissive attitude towards the concerns or struggles of employees” (OpenAI, 2023).



OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 23 version). [Large language model].



In-Text Citation Basics:

  • APA uses author-date citation system
  • Informs the reader where the information came from
  • Refers the reader to the source information


When to Use How to Format
Paraphrase/Summarize  Author-Date
 Direct Quotation  Author-Date-Page/Para
 Block Quote (quotes of 40+ words) Indented 0.5” Author-Date-Page/Para



  • Use sparingly
  • Page numbers (or paragraph numbers) must be included for exact quotes
  • Only include relevant material
  • Block quotes = 40+ words, no quotation marks, indented



Neu (2015) stated that “healthcare is a right” (p. 6).

In 2017, Smith argued that “healthcare is a privilege” (para. 3) and therefore should not be free.

The notion that healthcare is a right has been debated by many authors (Neu, 2105, p. 6; Smith, 2017, para. 3).




Why Cite?

  • Avoid Plagiarism

  • Indicate info. from various sources

  • Easily identify sources

  • Adds credibility to your writing

  • Expands breadth/depth of your writing

  • Acknowledge the sources that you have borrowed from



  • The reference list starts on a new page with the word References, centered and bold
  • Double-spaced

  • Your reference list must match your in-text citations and vice versa

  • Alphabetical list by author’s last name

  • Use a hanging indent for every line after the first

  • For titles of books, articles, & websites in reference lists, capitalize only:

    • the first word
    • the first word after a colon
    • proper nouns

In-Text Citation Examples:

Narrative Parenthetical
According to Smith et al. ... (2020). The research shows .... (McConkey & Christiansen, 2020).
Pearsong et al. found ... (2020). Research findings .... (Pearsong, et al., 2020).
McConkey and Christiansen (2020) ... Science has proven ... (Andersen, 2020).


General Reference Form:

Author Last Name(s), First Initial, Middle Initial. (Date). Title of article. Title of Source, volume number(issue number), page

numbers. DOI or URL.  


Reference Examples: 

Articles with a DOI (Digital Object Identifier):

McConkey, S.M., & Christiansen, S.J. (2020). Language learning in Miami: A cross-linguistic model of diverse Spanish

dialects. Psychological Review, 128(8), 25-61.


Articles without a DOI:

Andersen, J. (2020, March 30). Miami and Coronavirus. New York Times. C1


Pearsong, S., Padron, M., & Ortiz, J. (2020, January 1). What the New Year has in store for the U.S. The New



Article with an article number or eLocator

Smith, T. C., Castillo, M. J., Jackson, G. L., Simpson, B. B., Lantry, R. S., O'Reilly, S. T., Rosenberg, F., Lee, L. H., Cox,

G., Harris, H. L., Kass, P., Gonzalez, W. L., Hughes, W., Carter, D., Campbell, C., Baker, A. B., Flores, T., Gray, W. E., 

Green, G., ... Nelson, T. P. (2020). Miami and Coronavirus. PLOS ONE, 14(1), Article


In-Text Citation Examples:

Narrative Parenthetical
According to Nadler and Voyles ... (2020). The research shows .... (Stone, 2020).
 Johnson states ... (2020). Research findings .... (Weinstock, et al., 2020).
In his book, Hacker finds ... (2017) ... ... (Weinstock et al., 2003).

Reference Examples:

TIP: In the 7th edition, publisher location is no longer required when citing books.


Authored book with a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) Example:

Nadler, J.T. & Voyles, E. C. (2020). Stereotypes: The incidence and impacts of bias.  ABC-CLIO.


Authored book without a DOI (print or ebook) Example:

Johnson, D.W. (2020). The customer revolution in healthcare: Delivering kinder, smarter, affordable care for all. McGraw-Hill.


Edited book without a DOI Example:

Hacker Hughes, J. (Ed). (2017). Military veteran psychological health and social care: Contemporary approaches. Routledge.


Chapter in an edited book with a DOI Example:

Stone, C. (2020). Stereotypes of veterans. In J. T. Nadler & Voyles, E. C. (Eds.), Stereotypes: The incidence and impacts of

bias. (pp. 213-225). ABC-CLIO. /fpsyg.2015.0004.


Chapter in an edited book without a DOI Example:

Weinstock, R., Leong, G. B., & Silva, J. A. (2003). Defining forensic psychiatry: Roles and responsibilities. In R. Rosner (Ed.),

Principles and practice of forensic psychiatry (2nd ed., pp. 7-13). CRC Press.


Website Examples:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, January 23). People at high risk of developing flu-related complications.

Martin Lillie, C. M. (2016, December 29). Be kind to yourself: How self-compassion can improve your resiliency. Mayo Clinic.

Boddy, J., Neumann, T., Jennings, S., Morron, V., Alderson, P., Rees, R., & Gibson, W. (n.d.). Ethics principles. The

Research Ethics Guidebook: A Resource for Social Scientists.


.... (Boddy, et al., n.d.).

... (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018).

Body et al. ...  (n.d.) ...

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, ... (2018).

Tweet Example:

Obama, M. [@MichelleObama] (2020, April 18). Thank you to all the essential workers who are getting up every day and

risking their lives on our behalf. @LauraWBush and I were honored to show our support for their heroic efforts during

tonight's @GlblCtzn’s One World: #TogetherAtHome Special. [video attached] Tweet. Twitter


.... (Obama, 2020).

Obama (2020) ...

Twitter Profile Example:

Bush, Laura. [@laurawbush]. (n.d.). Tweets. [Twitter profile] Twitter. Retrieved from April 18, 2020 from


.... (Bush, n.d.).

Bush (n.d.) ... 

Facebook Page Example:

Coronavirus (Covid-19) Information Center. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved April 18, 2020, from


.... (Coronavirus (Covid-19) Information Center, n.d.).

Coronavirus (Covid-19) Information Center (n.d.) ...

Facebook Post Example:

National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, November 28). Suicide affects all ages, genders, races, and ethnicities. Check out

these 5 Action Steps for Helping Someone in Emotional Pain [Infographic]. Facebook.


.... (National Institute of Mental Health, 2018).

The National Institute of Mental Health ...  (2018) ...

Instagram Video or Photo Example:
APA Style [@officialapastyle]. (2018, December 5). Welcome to the official Instagram for #APAStyle! We’re here to help you

with your APA Style questions [Instagram photograph]. Retrieved from


.... (APA Style, 2018).

APA Style ...  (2018) ...

Instagram Profile:
Star Wars [@starwars]. (n.d.). Posts [Instagram profile]. Retrieved December 10, 2018, from


.... (Star Wars, n.d.).

Star Wars ...  (n.d.) ...

Instagram Highlight:
APA Style [@officialapastyle]. (n.d.). FAQs [Instagram highlight]. Retrieved December 10, 2018, from


.... (APA Style, n.d.).

APA Style ...  (n.d.) ...

Blog Post Example:

APA Style. (2020, March 19). What’s new in the seventh edition Publication Manual. APA Style.


.... (APA Style, 2020).

The APA Style (2020) ...

Mobile App Examples:

Actual App:
Epocrates. (2019). Epocrates medical references (Version 18.12) [Mobile app]. App Store. 

Entry in the App:

Epocrates. (2019). Interaction check: Aspirin + sertraline. In Epocrates medical references (version 18.12) [Mobile app]. App



.... (Epocrates, 2019).

Epocrates ... (2019). 


YouTube Example:

Cutts, S. (2017, November 24). Happiness [Video]. YouTube. ​


.... (Cutts, 2017).

Cutts (2017) ...


Ted Talk Example:

Kowalski, C. (2017, November).The critical role librarians play in the

opioid crisis


.... (Kowalski, 2017).

Kowalski (2017) ...


Film or Video Example:

Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One flew over the cuckoo’s nest [Film]. United Artists.


.... (Forman, 1975).

Forman (1975) ...


TV Example:

Wolf, D. (1999-present). Law & Order: Special Victims Unit [TV Series].  Wolf Entertainment Productions; NBC.


.... (Wolf, 1999-present).

Wolf (1999-present) ...


Podcast Example:

Poor, N., Woods, E. & Williams, A. (2016-present). Ear Hustle [Audio podcast]. PRX.


.... (Poor et al., 2016-present).

Poor et al. (2016-present) ...

Report Examples:

National Cancer Institute. (2018). Facing forward: Life after cancer treatment (NIH Publication No. 18-2424). U.S. Department

of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.

Blackwell, D. L., Lucas, J. W., & Clarke, T. C. (2014). Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview

Survey, 2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. (2017). Agency financial report: Fiscal year 2017.


.... (National Cancer Institute, 2018).

... (Blackwell, et al., 2014).

... (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 2017).

National Cancer Institute (2018) ...

Blackwell, et al. (2014) ...

According to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (2017), ...


Presentation Example:

O'Reilly, P., Edwards, C., & Hamil, S. K. (2020, April 1-3).  How to cite properly in APA. [Paper presentation]. Florida Library Association 100th Annual Conference, Orlando, FL, United States.

*Replace [Paper presentation] with [Conference presentation] or [Poster presentation] as needed. 


.... (O'Reilly, et al., 2020).

O'Reilly et al. (2020) ...


Dissertation Examples:


Hodges, L. (2018). Instructional design perceptions and practices of faculty [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Florida

International University.


Sanderson, K. R. (2012). Time orientation in organizations: Polychronicity and multitasking (Publication No. 3554209)

[Doctoral dissertation Florida International University]. Proquest Dissertations & Theses.


.... (Hodges, 2018).

Sanderson (2012) ...


Unpublished Manuscript Example:

Yen, J., Chen, Y., Rigotti, A., & Deckard C. (2016). Linking good customer services to increased sales: An observational study

[Unpublished manuscript]. College of Business, Florida International University.

Include the department and institution where the work was published if possible. 


....  (Yen et al., 2016).

Yen, et al. (2016) ...


Data Set Examples:

Published Data:

Pew Research Center (2018).  Core Trend Survey [Data set].

Unpublished Unnamed Raw Data Set:

Baer,  R. A. (2015). [Unpublished raw data on the correlations between the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and the

Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills]. University of Kentucky.


.... (Pew Research Center, 2018).

Baer (2015) ...

Infographic Example:

Florida Library Association. (2020, February). Federal funds in Florida [Infographic].


.... (Florida Library Association [FLA], 2020).

Florida Library Association [FLA] (2020) ...


Map Example:

Florida International University GIS Center. (2015). BIKE – Bicycle Knowledge Explorer (Palm Beach) [Map].


.... (Florida International University GIS Center, 2015).

Florida International University GIS Center (2015) ...


Photograph Example:

McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic.


.... (McCurry, 1985).

McCurry (1985) ...


PowerPoint or Lecture Notes Example:

Cana, E., & Vasilev, J. (2019, May 22). [Lecture notes on resource allocation]. Department of Management Control and

Information Systems, University of Chile.

Mack, R., & Spake, G. (2018). Citing open source images and formatting references for presentations [PowerPoint slides].


.... (Mack & Spake, 2018).

Cana and Vasiley (2019) ...


Museum Example:

Wood, G. (1930). American gothic [Painting]. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.


.... (Wood, 1930).

Wood (1930) ...

Supreme Court / Lower Federal Cases

Florida Cases Statutes 

A statute is a law or act passed by a legislative body (at either the federal or state level).  Federal statutes can be found in the United States Code. Florida Statutes can be found in the Florida Statutes. 

In-text Citation:

Parenthetical citation: (Name v. Name, Year)
Narrative citation: Name v. Name (Year)


.... (Florida v. Georgia, 2018).

In the United States Supreme Court case, Florida v. Georgia (2018) ...

In-text Citation:

Name v. Name (Year)

(Name v. Name, Year).


The case Lee Memorial Health System v. Progressive Select Insurance Company ... (2019).

In Lee Memorial Health System v. Progressive Select Insurance Company, ... (2019).

In-text Citation:

(Name of Act, Year)

Name of Act (Year)


Today's healthcare system ... (Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, 2010).

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act ... (2010)


Name v. Name, Volume U.S. Page (Year). URL


Florida v. Georgia, 138 U.S. 2502 (2018).


Basic Circuit Court Format

Decisions are published in the Federal Reporter.

Reference: Name v. Name, Volume F. [or F.2d, F.3d, ...] Page (Court Year). URL

Blue Martini Kendall, LLC v. Miami Dade County, Florida, 816 F.11d 1343 (11th Circ. 2016). https:...


Basic District Court Format

Decisions are published in the Federal Supplements.

Reference: Name v. Name, Volume F. Supp. Page (Court Year). URL


Name v. Name, Volume Reporter Page (Court Year). URL


Lee Memorial Health System v. Progressive Select Insurance Company 17 FL So. 2d. 1993, (2019).


Name of Act, Title Source § Section Number (Year). URL


Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, 42 U.S.C. § 18001 (2010).


APA 7th Edition Videos & Tutorials

APA 7th Edition: Set up an APA Format Paper in 6 Minutes | Scribbr